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Discussion papers | Copyright
https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-2017-48
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 26 Oct 2017

Research article | 26 Oct 2017

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems (GI).

Shallow Geophysical Techniques to Investigate the Groundwater Table at the Giza Pyramids Area, Giza, Egypt

Sharafeldin M. Sharafeldin1, Khalid S. Essa1, Mohamed A. S. Youssef2, and Zein E. Diab1 Sharafeldin M. Sharafeldin et al.
  • 1Geophysics Dept, Faculty of Science, Cairo University
  • 2Nuclear Material Authority, P.O. Box 530, Maadi, Cairo

Abstract. Geophysical studies were performed along selected locations across the Pyramids Plateau to investigate the groundwater table and the near aquifer, which harmfully affected the existed monuments of the Giza Pyramids and Sphinx. Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI), Shallow Seismic Refraction (SSR) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques were carried out along selected profiles in the plateau. Ten ERI, twenty six SSR and nineteen GPR profiles were performed at the sites. The ERI survey shows that, the groundwater table is at elevations varying from 13 to 18m above the sea level (asl) and low resistivity values near the surface at the Great Sphinx. ERI profiles, which were applied southeast of the Middle Pyramid (Khafre), show high resistivity values near the surface, and water table is located at elevations ranging from 22 to 40masl, while the ERI profiles conducted south of Menkaure, show almost high resistivity near the surface. The groundwater table is located at elevations ranging between 45 and 58masl. The aquifer layer shows electrical resistivities ranging between 10 and 50Ohm.m. The considerable high change in the groundwater table is due to the rapid increases of topography from the Great Sphinx towards the Small Pyramids (Menkaure), where this part looks-like a scarp. The SSR Survey is transmitted to know the different velocities and types of the layers, which can help in knowing the saturated layers in the area. The GPR Survey is performed to delineate the water table, which gives good matching with the ERI results.

Sharafeldin M. Sharafeldin et al.
Sharafeldin M. Sharafeldin et al.
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Short summary
The groundwater table is interpreted from the acquired geophysical data along the conducted profiles to be at the following elevations: Area-I: The groundwater table is located at elevations of 20 to 21 meter asl; Area-II: The groundwater table is located at elevations of 11.5 to 17.5 meters asl; Area-III: The groundwater table is located at elevations of 13 to 13.5 meters asl and Area-IV: The groundwater table is located at elevations of 14 to 58 meters asl.
The groundwater table is interpreted from the acquired geophysical data along the conducted...
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